RackHD enables much of its functionality by providing PXE boot services to machines that will be managed, and integrating the services providing the protocols used into a workflow engine. RackHD is built to download a microkernel (a small OS) crafted to run tasks in coordination with the workflow engine. The default and most commonly used microkernel is based on Linux, although WinPE and DOS network-based booting is also possible.
RackHD was born from the realization that our effective automation in computing and improving efficiencies has come from multiple layers of orchestration, each building on a lower layer. A full-featured API-driven environment that is effective spawns additional wrappers to combined the lower level pieces into patterns that are at first experimental and over time become either de facto or concrete standards.
Application automation services such Heroku or CloudFoundry are service API layers (AWS, Google Cloud Engine, SoftLayer, OpenStack, and others) that are built overlying infrastructure. Those services, in turn, are often installed, configured, and managed by automation in the form of software configuration management: Puppet, Chef, Ansible, etc. To automate data center rollouts, managing racks of machines, etc - these are built on automation to help roll out software onto servers - Cobbler, Razor, and now RackHD.
The closer you get to hardware, the less automated systems tend to become. Cobbler and SystemImager were mainstays of early data center management tooling. Razor (or Hanlon, depending on where you’re looking) expanded on those efforts.
RackHD expands the capabilities of hardware management and operations beyond the mainstay features, such as PXE booting and automated installation of OS and software. It includes active metrics and telemetry, integration and annotated monitoring of underlying hardware, and firmware updating.
RackHD continues the extension by enabling automation by “playing nicely” with both existing and future potential systems, providing a consistent means of doing common automation and allowing for the specifics of various hardware vendors. It adds to existing open source efforts by providing a significant step the enablement of converged infrastructure automation.
RackHD provides a REST API for the automation using an underlying workflow engine (named the “monorail engine” after a popular Seattle coffee shop: http://www.yelp.com/biz/monorail-espresso-seattle).
RackHD is also providing an implementation of the Redfish specification as an additional REST API to provide a common data model for representing bare metal hardware, and provides this as an aggregate for multiple back-end servers and systems.
The workflow engine operates with and coordinates with services to respond to protocols commonly used in hardware management. RackHD is structured with several independent processes, typically focused on specific function or protocol so that we can scaling or distribute them independently, using a pattern of Microservices.
RackHD communicates between these using message passing over AMQP and stores data in an included persistence store. MongoDB is the default, and configurable communications layers and persistence layers are in progress.
This DHCP server provides IP addresses dynamically using the DHCP protocol. It is a critical component of a standard `Preboot Execution Environment (PXE)`_ process.
The DHCP protocol supports getting additional data specifically for the PXE process from a secondary service that also responds on the same network as the DHCP server. The DHCP proxy service provides that information, generated dynamically from the workflow engine.
TFTP is the common protocol used to initiate a PXE process. on-tftp is tied into the workflow engine to be able to dynamically provide responses based on the state of the workflow engine and to provide events to the workflow engine when servers request files via TFTP.
on-http provides both the REST interface to the workflow engine and data model APIs as well as a communication channel and potential proxy for hosting and serving files to support dynamic PXE responses. RackHD commonly uses iPXE as its initial bootloader, loading remaining files for PXE booting via HTTP and using that communications path as a mechanism to control what a remote server will do when rebooting.
on-http also serves as the communication channel for the microkernel to support deep hardware interrogation, firmware updates, and other actions that can only be invoked directly on the hardware (not through an out of band management channel).
on-syslog is a syslog receiver endpoint provideing annotated and structured logging from the hosts under management. It channels all syslog data sent to the host into the workflow engine.
on-taskgraph is the workflow engine, driving actions on remote systems and processing workflows for machines being managed. Additionally, the workflow engine provides the engine for polling and monitoring.
RackHD uses the `Preboot Execution Environment (PXE)`_ for booting and controlling servers. PXE is a vendor-independent mechanism that allows networked computers to be remotely booted and configured. PXE booting requires that DHCP and TFTP are configured and responding on the network to which the machine is attached.
RackHD uses iPXE as its initial bootloader. iPXE takes advantage of HTTP and permits the dynamic generation of iPXE scripts – referred to in RackHD as profiles – based on what the server should do when it is PXE booting.
Data center automation is enabled through each server’s Baseboard Motherboard Controller (BMC) embedded on the server motherboard. Using Intelligent Platform Management Interface (IPMI) to communicate with the BMC, RackHD can remotely power on, power off, reboot, request a PXE boot, and perform other operations.
Many open source tools, such as Cobbler, Razor, and Hanlon use this kind of mechanism. RackHD goes beyond this and adds a workflow engine that interacts with these existing protocols and mechanisms to let us create workflows of tasks, boot scripts, and interactions to achieve our full system automation.
The workflow engine supports RackHD responding to requests to PXE boot, like the above systems, and additionally provides an API to invoke workflows against one or more nodes. This API is intended to be used and composed into a larger system to allow RackHD to automate efforts sequences of tasks, and leverage that specifically for bare metal manangement. For more details on workflows, how to create them, and how to use them, please see Workflows in the RackHD Users Guide.
RackHD includes defaults to automatically create and run workflows when it gets DHCP/PXE requests from a system it’s never seen previously. This special case is called Discovery.
RackHD supports two modes of learning about machines that it manages. We loosely group these as passive and active discovery.
For an example, the “SKU Discovery” workflow runs through its tasks as follows:
You can find the SKU Discovery graph at https://github.com/RackHD/on-taskgraph/blob/master/lib/graphs/discovery-sku-graph.js, and the simpler “Discovery” graph it uses at https://github.com/RackHD/on-taskgraph/blob/master/lib/graphs/discovery-graph.js
RackHD leverages its workflow engine to also provide a mechanism to poll and collect data from systems under management, and convert that into a “live data feed”. The data is cached for API access and published through AMQP, providing a “live telemetry feed” for information collected on the remote systems.
In addition to this live feed, RackHD includes some rudimentary alerting mechanisms that compare the data collected by the pollers to regular expressions, and if they match, create an additional event that is published on an “alert” exchange in AMQP. More information can be found at Pollers in the RackHD Users Guide.
RackHD also provides notification on some common tasks and workflow completion. Additional
detail can be found at
Other workflows can be configured and assigned to run on remote systems. For example, OS install can be set to explicitly power cycle (reboot) a remote node. As the system PXE boots, an installation kernel is sent down and run instead of the discovery microkernel.
The remote network-based OS installation process that runs from Linux OS distributions typically runs with a configuration file - debseed or kickstart. The monorail engine provides a means to render these configuration files through templates, with the values derived from the workflow itself - either as defaults built into the workflow, discovered data in the system (such as data within the catalogs found during machine interrogation), or even passed in as variables when the workflow was invoked by an end-user or external automation system. These “templates” can be accessed through the Monorail’s engine REST API - created, updated, or removed - to support a wide variety of responses and capabilities.
Workflows can also be chained together and the workflow engine includes simple logic (as demonstrated in the discovery workflow) to perform arbitrarily complex tasks based on the workflow definition. The workflow definitions themselves are accessible through the Monorail engine’s REST API as a “graph” of “tasks”.
Workflows and tasks are fully declarative with a JSON format. A workflow task is a unit of work decorated with data and logic that allows it to be included and run within a workflow. Tasks are also mapped up “Jobs”, which is the Node.js code that RackHD runs from data included in the task declaration. Tasks can be defined to do wide-ranging operations, such as bootstrap a server node into a Linux microkernel, parse data for matches against a rule, and more.